Alexa Rosenberg as Prince Orlofsky from OperaRox's Opera Rave Masquerade at the Stonewall Inn (photo credit Heather Bobeck)
Are Operatic Voice Types Inherently Gendered?
Alexa Rosenberg as Prince Orlofsky from OperaRox's Opera Rave Masquerade at the Stonewall Inn (photo by Heather Bobeck)

Are Operatic Voice Types Inherently Gendered?

Operatic Voice Classification for the 21st Century is a multi-part series exploring the ever-changing system of voice type in classical singing through a transgender lens. The first installment delved into why opera needs ungendered voice types to move forward, and later installments will discuss possibilities for the continual adaptation of voice classification systems.

A quick reminder that all experiences expressed here are mine and do not reflect those of transgender and/or nonbinary people in general. Everyone has their own story to tell, and this is mine.

Imagine, for a moment, a mezzo-soprano. Who do you see? If you’re having trouble, this is what Google came up with:

A screenshot of a Google Image search on

You’ll notice that they’re all women. I can’t make assumptions for those I don’t know, but of those I do know, many of the women shown here are cisgender, not transgender or gender non-conforming, women. (They’re also mostly white. But that’s another topic for another article.)

Now, imagine a countertenor. Who do you see? Here’s what Google sees:

A screenshot of a Google Image search on
Both the mezzo-soprano and the countertenor are newer voice types.

It’s also interesting that both the mezzo-soprano and the countertenor are newer voice types. Countertenors are a contemporary version of the Baroque and Classical era castrati. Mezzo-sopranos didn’t exist as their own voice type until the 19th century.

If a mezzo-soprano and a countertenor share the same range and often the same roles, then why are they separate types? And why is there an obvious gender difference?

Of course, the obvious answer is that timbre and ability are different between mezzo-sopranos and countertenors. And that timbre/ability difference, on the most basic and overly generalized level, is due to the physical differences of the vocal cords.

The gendering of body parts is as useless as the gendering of articles of clothing.

As much as I love science, I don’t think it’s beneficial to go into it here. Instead, I’d like to speak about my own experience transitioning from average “female” vocal cords to testosterone-affected vocal cords that more closely resemble average “male” vocal cords. I’m using quotation marks here, because the gendering of body parts is as useless as the gendering of articles of clothing. A body part or an article of clothing may have societal or traditional associations with a specific gender, but that isn’t enough to gender it; instead, these things take on the gender of the person they belong to.  Since I’m a transmasculine nonbinary person, my vocal cords are transmasculine and nonbinary as well.

All of this aside, the mechanism that I’ve spent years training as a mezzo-soprano feels and operates completely differently since hormone replacement therapy caused it to change. Not only has the timbre and range fluctuated, but the overall sensation of singing with these changed vocal cords is now foreign to me.

That said, am I still a mezzo-soprano if I have the range, the roles, the experience, and the training? Or am I a countertenor now, since my vocal cords more closely resemble “male” vocal cords? Or, perhaps, I’m neither. This is where the inherent gendering of the voice types becomes more apparent and far less useful.

Critics continue to make women’s bodies a big deal (generally, but especially) when they’re performing trouser roles.

Perhaps I’m being a bit flippant about decoupling gender from voice, since it’s still a topic of hot debate when it comes to operatic casting as well as recital repertoire. There’s still the question of who’s “allowed” to sing Winterreise (spoiler alert: the answer is “everyone”) and critics continue to make women’s bodies a big deal (generally, but especially) when they’re performing trouser roles. Perhaps my own concept and experience of gender is too opaquely coloring the conversation here. I just can’t move past the fact that boy sopranos are boy sopranos and I don’t personally know any female operatic tenors. To me, this seems too constrictive to be adaptable.

As I mentioned in the last part of this series, I believe that adaptability is crucial to an art form’s success and relevancy into the future. I’m thinking we could go about solving this with one of two major shifts: we could remove the gender implications of our current voice type system (as the German Fach system has attempted to do, especially in regard to transgender singers) or we could create a new system that has a lack of gendered implications. Or, perhaps, it’s as easy as normalizing gender as part of the voice type. Then, female tenor will be as much a voice type as dramatic tenor. I’ll dive into these possibilities in the next part.

Too often, it seems that the answer to “Has society gendered this?” is “Yes.” It’s no different with operatic voice types.

Aiden Kim Feltkamp (they/he) began their musical life at the age of 5 playing a quarter-size cello and now they champion new classical music and opera as a trans nonbinary librettist, performer, and educator. They’re currently the Emerging Composers and Diversity Director with American Composers Orchestra. Mx. Feltkamp is passionate about diversity and inclusion, and that mission pervades every aspect of their career. They write to explore the crevices and the intersections: the shadowy stories previously unexcavated due to the oppression of their narrators. In life and in fiction, they’re... Read more »

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5 thoughts on “Are Operatic Voice Types Inherently Gendered?

  1. Andrea

    Maybe you have not been looking for a male trying hearing Dimash Kudaibergen he is Baritone and take his voice to a Soprano his voice is like an Angel listen to him sing ” SOS” live on The Singer 2017 then hear him sing “The Meaning of Eternity” he is Rare.

  2. naomi

    I do think going into the science would hit on a rather sore point though, ie that trans women/transfeminine people almost never can be sopranos or mezzo-sopranos or contraltos if their voices are judged in isolation on a purely timbral & ability level, because the specific timbre of those voice types is dependent on the vocal cords having a certain structure, as far as we know. I haven’t seen anyone attempt to mitigate this, which is in part to do with voice pedagogy best practices (which are extremely opposed to training any singer into a range that isn’t their “natural” one, even if this isn’t a range congruent with their gender identity) and in part to do with actual voice science (it’s certainly difficult enough to retrain e.g. a baritone as a mezzo-soprano that I’ve never heard of a trans person accomplishing this on their own, although whether it’s “impossible” we can’t really know, thanks to the above-mentioned voice pedagogy). The only mitigation efforts I’ve seen have addressed gender thru normalising trans singers as “female baritones/tenors/countertenors/etc” but that doesn’t solve the major problem, which is that most trans women don’t want to have baritone/tenor/countertenor/etc voices in the first place.

    This may be a discussion planned for a later article in the series though!

  3. Diane

    As a voice coach to young and adult oper singers, I am VERY interested in your observations here. One of my finest young baritone has made the switch to counter tenorwith his Conservatory voice teacher and we have yet to see if this actually IS his place in the voice community. I have another new client who is definitely betwixt and between tenor and alto, including high mezzo operatic material. I observe that he may have limited his own identity assessment as a strictly character tenor but, I believe he hasn’t been encouraged to sing properly in his legit tenor rep and to a certain degree, may be distracting himself with the mezzo rep? Time and coaching will tell. I remember hearing my first male alto, Paul Esswood in Paris about 40 years ago and being so astonished at the beauty and resonance of his voice….very UNlike the ‘white’, straight tone that I had previously heard from counter tenors, a term I hesitate to use describing this voice type, preferring alto! Thoughts?

  4. GT

    I understand your concerns and have read your article. You don’t address the underlying foundation, however, that opera was written by composers, such as Donizetti, Verdi, and Puccini, with specific male and female singers in mind. Additionally, the characters they portrayed were he’s and she’s, and had traditional masculine and feminine voices. Although I agree that even the guiding fach system is not without flaw, the final consideration is that the operatic works of the previous two centuries have always been produced as close as possible to the indicated notations. That is not to say recreations with fluid voices and types are not valid; moreover, there is now more the reason for them.

  5. Phill

    Just one quick question, isn’t vocal Fach determined by characteristics of the voice(tessitura, timbre, passagios, etc), not gender? Also isn’t the only reason vocal Fach have gender implications is bc of society. Like, if nonbinary people were more accepted/previlent/idk the right word to use, we wouldn’t associate things such as the Fach System with a gender?
    I have never thought about this before and I am glad I came across this article

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